ALT - Alternative Learning & Teaching
Learning and Teaching Re-imagined  *   Future Education Today
The future of education is here today! The ALTE Global Learning Ecosystem is effective on
several different levels in supporting collaborative learning. Our approach is computer-
supported inquiry and project-based experiential learning that builds knowledge, for students
and educators as well.
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Sandra Lund-Diaz, M.Ed., Director of Strategic Partnerships and EdTech Technician
Knowledge Building in Action - A nonprofit organization
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What is in the knowledge-building curriculum?
Because knowledge building pedagogy supports a culture of inquiry
and evidence to unlock critical thinking and creativity based on an
exchange of ideas and research, there is no set curriculum of pre-
determined content.

Each teacher utilizing the Knowledge Forum to support the research
students do around common themes and contextualized phenomenon
learning in small groups is creating a supporting learning for exploring
and discovery through the knowledge-building principles: students
access authoritative sources of information through books, newspapers,
and magazines, and takes advantage of readily-available digital content,
especially the Internet. This allows exposure to a broad range of ideas
and models of how things work, be it the mechanics of a machine, the
tenets of open government climate change or countless other subjects,
viewed through a multidisciplinary lens.

The Internet is a good source of updated information that the hard-copy
publishing industry for textbooks cannot compete. With the gaining
popularity and growing importance of the Internet of Everything (IoE),
more resources are made available for research from the networked
connection of people, data, processes and things.

What subjects and grade-levels are appropriate for knowledge building?
Knowledge-building in K-12 is modeled after scientific research centers,
where problem redefinition is based on a social process and where
everyone in small-group learning benefits from the ideas of others.
Scientists, researchers and businesses working on problem solving
improve their theories with the advances of others and a continual
interplay of findings. What makes knowledge building a realistic
approach to K-12 education is the discovery that children as early as
primary school can engage in it; knowledge building methodology is
appropriate for students from middle school through high school. Any
subject that can be investigated, explored or researched is a good
subject for a knowledge-building learning environment, leading to
"phenomenon learning, or topic-centric small group discussions.
Subject matters can become multi-disciplinary when incorporating
research around various aspects.

What is contextualized "phenomenon learning" ?
Contextualization, or "phenomenon learning"  centers around common
themes, subjects or issues that can be studied from a multidisciplinary
perspective, where collaborative learning strategies focus teaching
and learning squarely on concrete applications in a specific context that
is of interest to students and relevant to their lives. Some examples of
phenomenon learning include sea level rising, climactic change, water,
sustainability, 'Smart' cities, communities and schools, and others.
Phenomenon learning has formed the basis for education reform in
countries such as Finland and Singapore that have consistently topped
the ranking of global  academic achievement assessments such as PISA.
Through education technology proven to improve learning outcomes,
the learning continues and expands, as students share the experience
with their friends, family and neighbors, and teachers become the
facilitators of learning through critical thinking and creativity rather
than the transmitters of pre-determined content.
Learn more at our PHENOMENON LEARNING page. ​

What is the significance of the model?  
Learning from a 20+ year success of the BCCI (Building Cultural
Capacity for Innovation) Network, a multi-nation design research
project, we have designed an innovative K-12 pathway to address
the needs of a knowledge society with a replicable, scalable and
cost-effective model for collaborative contextualized phenomenon
learning around topics through research and an exchange of ideas.
The ALT Learning and Teaching Ecosystem brings together elements
that are well-designed, highly-researched and easily scalable and
affordable to support all students in their learning, with the goals of
improving student achievements and outcomes while impacting
student growth. The model also supports the acquisition of information
and communication technology competencies required for effective
teaching, and arming students and teachers alike with skills to become
global citizens in knowledge-based and innovation-driven societies.
ALTE also fits within several international frameworks for effective
teaching and learning toward improving lives, as noted on our

Tell us more about democratizing knowledge by sharing ideas.
All participants are considered legitimate contributors to shared goals.
Therefore, every member of a small group learning environment must
contribute his or her own idea to the discussion. To fully understand
an idea is to understand the ideas that surround it, including those that
stand in contrast to it. An environment of diverse ideas and perspectives
enables new and more refined ideas to evolve. This is how knowledge
building democratizes knowledge. The ALT Learning and Teaching
Ecosystem supports a culture of inquiry and evidence to unlock critical
thinking and creativity based on an exchange of ideas and research
around common themes and phenomenon learning. Improving learning
outcomes through education technology and innovative assessment
methods to bridge gender and achievement gaps while preparing
students for college readiness.

What tools can STUDENTS use in knowledge building?
Knowledge-building students are able to use information and technology
at their fingertips. A knowledge-building classroom prepares them to
interpret the world around them, identify problems that impact their
community, and collaborate with others to find solutions through
innovation and creativity based on deep learning. These activities
are facilitated through the use of the Knowledge Forum platform, an
electronic workspace accessed through the Internet or from a server-
hosted platform. Here, students are able to apply what they have
learned in one subject area or with a multi-disciplinary approach to
another, in the process acquiring invaluable knowledge and skills. The
process of presenting multi-media presentations for videoconferencing
with their partnered classrooms not only builds skills but also supports
ongoing communication with their peers in classrooms across the street
or around the world.

What tools can TEACHERS use in knowledge building?
Scaffolds help users frame their ideas and present them to the community.
Individual ideas are contributed to a communal database, where notes are
stored on the Knowledge Forum platform, designed specifically to support
high-level knowledge processes; analytic tools can be called up on demand,
enabling participants to see at a glance the discourse and participation
patterns, growth in semantic content and other aspects of discourse and
participation. These tools, referred to as applets, are distinguished not
only by their flexibility and depth of analysis but also by their rendering of
results automatically in dramatic graphical form to quickly make clear
what is happening in a group’s work. Teachers can tell immediately if all
of their students are participating; they can identify the extent to which
students are referencing, reading, and building on each others’ notes.
These learning assessment tools allow teachers to see an increase in
vocabulary (both quantity and difficulty level) and amount of writing
done on the path toward subject mastery. Embedded formative
assessment tools allow teachers to course correct in real time.

How does the knowledge-building model deviate from current teaching methodologies?
The computer-supported collaborative learning model supports a sound
education setting where teachers are no longer simply transmitters of
information in isolated classrooms. In a knowledge-building classroom,
students form small groups to propose theories about the subject matter
of their research and discourse takes place among members of the group,
with the teacher serving as moderator, facilitator and coach.

What are the college-readiness goals of the ALT Global Learning
The knowledge-building model supports active learning, designed to
break the cycle of passive learning and education that teaches to the
test through root learning. Active learning and the previously-mentioned
21st Century skills are important skills key to being successful in college.
ALTE Global Learning Ecosystem helps educators bring their students to
the levels where they must be when applying for post-secondary education
paths of learning, having acquired important skills and knowledge that will
allow them to enroll in college courses. It also bridges the college readiness
gap, virtually eliminating the needs for remedial reading and writing courses
currently offered by community colleges.

Who can benefit from the ALTE Global Learning Ecosystem?
To say society in general will greatly benefit from implementing the A:T
Global Learning Ecosystem in K-12 education is quite a claim. Consider
how In everyone can benefit:
- Educators..... teachers, principals, technology staff and teachers aides
belong to a Community of Practice with immeasurable benefits:  networking
with their peers, access to resources such as shared curricula and best-
practice case studies, ongoing professional development, and an
enhancement of ICT-related skills that fall in line with UNESCO standards.
​- Students..... the model supports the acquisition of important academic
skills for education success and preparation for entering a global workforce
with the skills and capacities employers seek - being able to work in teams
and collaborate for problem solving; ways of thinking including creativity
and innovation, critical thinking and decision making; tools for working,
including information literacy and being able to use technology; living in
the world, including local and global citizenship, personal and social
responsibility, and global competence that encompasses cultural
-  Employers.... workers at all levels need to develop digital skills to grow
the economy and be successful. Leading,

managing and selling in the digital economy requires collaboration, continual learning, virtual
teaming, agility, a focus on business outcomes, and a commitment and willingness to

-  Governments..... modern societies need educated and informed citizens willing to
contribute to the governing

​processes and lend themselves toward a civilization-wide effort to advance knowledge

What is inquiry-based learning promoted through knowledge building methodologies?

Inquiry-based learning refers to creating learning environments that spark children’s natural
curiosity. Knowledge-

building pedagogy creates equitable, inclusive, engaging and active environments that make
students’ thinking

visible and transforms classrooms into communities of learners with ideas at the center of the
learning experience.

Knowledge-building students in K-12 collect information through the Knowledge Forum, an
electronic workspace

that supports discourse and exchanges by making the knowledge acquired collectively, i.e.
contributed by each

student, available for current and future use. Ideas the that come from students’ questions
and interests provide the

base for inquiry-based teaching, which is about really listening to and valuing what students
have to say and where

the teacher serves more as a facilitator of learning rather than a transmitter of pre-
determined knowledge.

Inquiry-based teaching provides opportunities for deeper and more equitable learning
experiences for all students,

as knowledge building success comes when all members of the small group learning
environment contribute their

ideas to the discourse thereby increasing students’ engagement and participation and
breaking away from passive


What is the expected performances from the use of knowledge-building dynamics?

​​Dr. Jianwei Zhang is a Professor in the Department of Educational Theory and Practice at
the University at

Albany, State University of New York. His research explores technology-enabled learning
designs to engage

students in sustained, creative knowledge work across content areas and school years in
order to prepare

them for 21st century careers.To measure increase in scientific thinking and knowledge gain,
Dr. Zhang has

presented the following table of research questions and analysis resulting from knowledge-
building inquiry:
How does knowledge building support the acquisition
of 21st Century skills?
Knowledge-building learning environments - in the K-12 classroom or
in alternative learning environments - train students ​to become better
information seekers, analysts, problem solvers and communicators
through the use of technology. Knowledge-building pedagogy supports
strategies that cover important academic skills and active learning
needed for success in the education process, in the workforce and
in life:
​- CRITICAL THINKING.... With knowledge building, students are
given the tools to learn and understand information to experiment with
different outcomes by playing with ideas and formulating theories.
- COLLABORATION....  in a safe, closed learning environment
supported by knowledge building, collaborative learning takes place
when students can explore a topic with contributions of ideas from
their peers and small group members solving complex problems.
- COMMUNICATION.... The small group learning environments
of knowledge-building learning environments support discourse,
where discussions can also help clear the tense atmosphere in a
classroom, and small group learning contributes to improved classroom
management. Students preparing results of their research utilizing a
range of multi-media tools also acquire a different set of communication
skills that prepare them with audio-visual communication capabilities.
They also acquire self-esteem and confidence with improved speaking
and language capabilities when getting in from of the webcam to
present their findings to their partnered classrooms or simply introducing
themselves to their peers during videoconferencing sessions.
-  GLOBAL COMPETENCE.... Partnering students with other
students across the globe is also very exciting for knowledge-building
students, allowing a glimpse into other cultures and nurturing empathy
that is so vital for international relations.  ​Young learners require and
want interaction with other people to fully attain their potential. Older
students find it most interesting and exciting where there is talking
involved. All students can communicate with their peers as global

How does ALTE address the objectives of  world-class thinking regarding
innovation-driven societies for economic progress?
Knowledge-building activity fits within the framework of the Organization
for Economic Co-operation and Development - OECD Innovation Strategy
for Education and Training project, viewing innovation as a driver of
growth toward better lives. OECD states that innovation will not blossom
unless employees have the skills needed to adapt to changing workplaces,
workers and consumers, the skills to suggest improvements, and creative
minds, scientists, and entrepreneurs, the skills to produce new knowledge
and invent new things. In innovation-driven societies, education and
training systems must empower people to innovate and quickly respond
to new skills needs generated by innovations, Confronting these challenges
will require policies that encourage innovation and improvement in the .
education system itself, which positions knowledge building to take the
lead. Innovative know-how is also required to deal with increasingly
serious problems (Thomas Homer-Dixon). Peter Drucker states that
innovation is becoming "part and parcel of the ordinary", where knowledge-
based innovation is the hardest, but has the greatest potential benefits. These
objectives are important to arrest a widening economic and cultural gap between
educational haves and have-nots, and we have an opportunity of bringing proven
tools that spark creativity toward innovation down to the K-12 level, beginning
with students as young as 12 years of age.

How does ALTE support educators in acquiring and
mastering their technology-based teaching skills?
ALTE leverages Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)
in unique ways. The model utilizes education technology tooled specifically
for hosting an electronic work-space for students to discuss, synthesize
and analyze information about specific topics in the curriculum. The
platform contains robust tools and applications that support collaborative
exploration and building of knowledge to maximize students’ explanation
and understanding of topics in conjunction with subject-based teaching of
mainstream education. It also provides a lens through which to integrate
ICT into teacher training, especially those aligned with the UNESCO
framework for ICT competencies.  This framework outlines the
competencies that teachers need to integrate ICTs into their professional
practice, emphasizing the role that ICTs can play in supporting major
education focus across growth phases of knowledge acquisition.

​How is testing done in knowledge-building classrooms?
Testing is still controlled and mandated by each state according to standards
established by education policies, so standardized testing is not replaced bu
rather enhanced through knowledge building. This is due to several factors
students engaging in knowledge building are better informed through deep
learning. They understand the material being tested because they have
studied it with critical thinking skills and have gained mastery of the subject
matter. And, they are constantly reading and writing, so tests are not
challenging for them. Java-base applets are embedded in the platform to
give a universal view as well as a student-specific view of contributions to
the electronic workspace and a review of research and multi-media
presentations completed in class.

So parents and students don't have to wait until the course or
school year  is over to get testing results?
Sorry, we can't fix the system and the process for announcing testing results
remain the same. What is different for knowledge-building students is that
assessment of learning takes place throughout the school year. Teachers
can tell which students need help by the universal overview supported by
tools embedded in the Knowledge Forum ​platform, and assessment is done
in real time. This allows formative assessment with course correction on
the fly if needed while being able to adhere to the academic standards and
curriculum guidelines imposed by the state and school districts.

Small group learning in computer-

collaborative learning environments

the Knowledge Forum electronic

promotes critical thinking, innovation,

communication and creativity, rather

focusing on memorization techniques

teaching to the test. Embedded

assessment tools allow teachers to

correct in real time, while identifying

areas where students need additional

​to become college ready.

Few school activities provide more

for students than being able to

with their peers. When those peers are

another location, especially another

the excitement grows and global

is enhanced. Regularly-scheduled

ferences between educators -
teachers with

teachers, principals with principals,
and tech

staff together, improves networking,
access to

best practice and resources, and

​ongoing professional development.
communities of researchers and industry

professionals who value ideas as conceptual

artifacts that can be improved by means of
critique and discourse. Training is a critical

component of the ALTE model, where educators

teachers, principals, and technicians - become

proficient in the use of knowledge-building

​technology, methodologies and assessment

tools. They are also partnered with their

colleagues teaching the same age group or

subject matters, especially important in

personalized, "Phonemenon Learning" around

common themes.
Frequently Asked Questions - FAQs

Bereiter, C. (2002). Education and Mind in the Knowledge Age (Second ed.): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (2003). Learning to work creatively with knowledge. In E. De Corte, L. Verschaffel, N. Entwistle, & J. van Merriënboer (Eds.), Unravelling basic components and
dimensions of powerful learning environments. EARLI Advances in Learning and Instruction Series. Pergamon.

Bereiter, C., Scardamalia, M., Cassells, C., & Hewitt, J. (1997). Postmodernism, knowledge building, and elementary science. Elementary School Journal. (97) 4, 329-340.

Hakkarainen & De Jong, Toward practices of knowledge building. (symposium). Proceedings of the 8th European biennial meeting for research on learning and instruction, (Göteborg,
Sweden), 1999.

Chiaratto, Loraine. Natural Curiosity:  Building Children’s Understanding of the World through Environmental Inquiry / A Resource for Teachers. University of Toronto/The Laboratory School
at The Dr. Eric Jackman

Institute of Child Study.

Kai Hakkarainen, A knowledge-practice perspective on technology-mediated learning, International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 2009, 4, 2, 213

Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (1994). Computer support for knowledge-building communities. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 3(3), 265-283. [3]

Scardamalia, M. (2002). Collective cognitive responsibility for the advancement of knowledge. In B. Smith (Ed.), Liberal education in a knowledge society (pp. 67-98). Chicago: Open Court.

Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (2003). Knowledge Building. In J. W. Guthrie (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Education, Second Edition (pp.). New York: Macmillan Reference, USA.

Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (2006) FCL and Knowledge Building: A Continuing Dialogue. PDF. (A nice introduction that opposed "belief mode" and "design mode".

Swan, K., Shea, P., Fredericksen, E., Pickett, A, Pelz, W. & Maher, G. (2000). “Building knowledge building communities: consistency, contact and communication in the virtual classroom.”

Journal of Educational Computing Research, 23(4), 389-413.

Zhang, Jianwei; Marlene Scardamalia, Mary Lamon, Richard Messina and Richard Reeve (2007). Socio-cognitive dynamics of knowledge building in the work of 9- and 10-year-olds,

ETR&D, 55 (2), 117.145

Zhang, Jianwei; Huang-Yao Hong, Marlene Scardamalia, Chew Lee Teo, Elizabeth A. Morley, Sustaining Knowledge Building as a Principle-Based Innovation at an Elementary School,

Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2011, 20, 2, 262

Zhang Jianwei; Marlene Scardamalia, Richard Reeve, Richard Messina, Designs for Collective Cognitive Responsibility in Knowledge-Building Communities, Journal of the Learning Sciences,
2009, 18, 1, 7

Bielaczyc, K., Kapur, M. & Collins, A. (2013) Cultivating a community of learners in K-12 classrooms. In C. E. Hmelo-Silver, A. M. O’Donnell, C. Chan, & C. A. Chinn (Eds.), International
Handbook of Collaborative

Learning (pp. 233 – 249). Taylor & Francis, Inc.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Read about OECD's efforts to redesign schools and  what schooling through innovation

means in practice -
 Schooling Redesigned Towards Innovative Learning Systems
UNESCO ICT Competency Framework for Teachers
Visit our page on Technology in K-12 education to learn why we are so committed to

promoting the United Nation's Information & Technology Competency Framework for